Nishan-e-Haider – Pakistan’s Highest Military Award for Bravery
We salute the Soldiers of Pakistan Army who faught and gave their lives for our great country, Pakistan. The Highest Military Award of Pakistan Has Been Awarded to Shaheed Soldiers Who Have Shown Bravery And Courage in Times Of War & Border Battles (1948, 1956, 1965, 1971, 1999)
There are 10 recipients of Nishan-e-Haider.
- Captain Muhammad Sarwar
- Major Tufail Muhammad
- Major Raja Aziz Bhatti
- Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas
- Jawan Sowar Muhammad Hussain
- Major Mohammad Akram
- Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfooz
- Major Shabbir Sharif
- Captain Karnal Sher Khan
- Havaldaar Lalak Jan
Born 1910, Village Sanghori
Commissioned into the Punjab Regiment, 1944.
During the Kashmir Operations soon after the birth of Pakistan, as Company Commander in the 2nd Battalion of the Punjab Regiment, Captain Sarwar launched an attack causing heavy casualties against a strongly fortified enemy position in the Uri Sector under heavy machine-gun, grenade and mortar fire.
But on 27 July 1948, as he moved forward with six of his men to cut their way through a barbed wire barrier, he died when his chest was riddled by a burst of automatic fire. He was 38 years old.
Born 1914 in Hoshiarpur.
Commissioned into the 16th Punjab Regiment, 1943.
Early in August, 1958, Major Tufail, a Company Commander in the East Pakistan Rifles, and his patrol encircled an Indian post in the Lakshmipur area. And, though mortally wounded in the hand-to-hand encounter that followed, Major Tufail continued to lead his troops till the Indians were driven out, leaving four dead and three prisoners.
He died the same day on 7 August 1958 at the age of 44.
Born 1928 in Hong Kong.
Commissioned into the Punjab Regiment, 1950.
On 6 September 1965, as Company Commander in the Burki area of the Lahore sector, Major Bhatti chose to move with his forward platton under incessant artillery and tank attacks for five days and nights in the defence of the strategic BRB canal.
Throughout, undaunted by constant fire from enemy shell arms, tanks and artillery, he organized the defence of the canal, directing his men to answer the fire until he was hit by an enemy tank shell which killed him on 10 September 1965. He was 37 years old.
Born 17 February 1951
Ccommissioned as a pilot in the Pakistan Air Force.
Pilot Officer Minhas was taxiing for take-off on a routine traning flight when an Instructor Pilot forced his way into the rear cockpit, seized control of the aircraft and took off. When Minhas realized that the absconding pilot was heading towards India, he tried to regain control of the plane but was unable to do so.
Knowing that it meant certin death, he damaged tha controls and forced the aircraft to crash thirty two miles short of the border on 20 August 1971. He died at the age of 20.
Born 18th June 1949 in Dhok Pir Baksh (now Dhok Mohammad Husain Janjua).
Enlisted as a driver on 3 September 1966.
Although only a driver in the 20th Lancers, when war broke out in 1971, Sowar Mohammad Hussein took an active part in every battle in which his unit was engaged unmindful of any danger, no matter how grave.
When he spotted the enemy digging in along a minefield near the village of Harar Khurd in December 1971 on his own initiative he directed accurate fire at the enemy resulting in the destruction of sixteen enemy tanks.
But while directing fire from recoilless rifles, he was hit in the chest by a burst of machine-gun fire and died on 10 December 1971 at the age of 22.
Born 4 April 1938 in Dingha, Gujrat District.
Commissioned in the Frontier Force Regiment on 13 October 1963.
Major Mohammad Akram and a company of 4 FF Regiment which he commanded in the forward area in Hilli district, in East Pakistan in 1971, came under incessant air, artillery and armour attacks.
But for an entire fortnight, despite enemy superiority in both numbers and fire power, he and his men repulsed every attack, inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy.
Major Akram died during this epic battle in 1971 at the age of 33.
Born 25 October 1944 in Pind Malikan (now Mahfuzabad), Rawalpindi district.
Enlisted in the Army on 25 October 1962.
Serving in ‘A’ Company of 15 Punjab Regiment when war broke out in 1971, Lance Naik Mohammad Mahfuz was deployed on the Wagha-Attari Sector in East Pakistan where his company was pinned down by unceasing frontal and crossfire from automatic weapons.
Although his machine gun was destroyed by an enemy shell, Mahfuz advanced towards an enemy bunker whose automatic fire had inflicted heavy casualties. Even though wounded in both legs by shell splinters, when he reached the bunker he stood up and pounced on the enemy, but was hit.
Although unarmed, he caught hold of one enemy was slowly strangling him when another bayoneted him to death during the night on 17 December 1971. He was 27 years old.
Born 28 April 1943 in Kunjah, Gujrat District.
Commissioned into the Frontier Force Regiment on 19 April 1964.
Major Shabbir Shariff as commander of a company of 6 FF Regiment, was ordered in December 1971 to capture high ground near Sulemanki than a company of the Assam Regiment supported by a squardon of tanks.
In a wellnigh superhuman action, for the next three days and nights after crossing a minefield and massive obstacles and killing forty-three soldiers and destroying four tanks, Major Sharif and his men held two enemy battalions at bay.
But after he took over an anti-tank gun from his gunner in an attack was killed by a direct hit in the afternoon of 6 December. He was 28 years old.
Enlisted: 1990, Second Lt.
Captain Karnal Sher joined those eight legendary heroes who received the highest military award of Nishan-i-Haider for laying down their lives in defence of the beloved motherland.
Captain Karnal Sher Khan emerged as the symbol of mettle and courage during the Kargil conflict on the Line of Control (LoC). He set personal examples of bravery and inflicted heavy losses on the enemy. He defended the five strategic posts, which he established with his jawans at the height of some 17,000 feet at Gultary, and repulsed many Indian attacks.
After many abortive attempts, the enemy on July 5 ringed the post of Capt. Sher Khan with the help of two battalion and unleashed heavy mortar firing and managed to capture some part of the post. Despite facing all odds, he lead a counter-attack and re- captured the lost parts.
But during the course he was hit by the machine-gun fire and embraced Shahadat at the same post. He is the first officer from the NWFP province to be awarded with Nishan-i-Haider.
Hav. Lalak Jan of the Northern Light Infantry (NLI) was one of those many who as a junior leader fought from the forefront to thwart heavy Indian attacks. He volunteered himself to be deployed on the front positions located at the jagged peak in May 1999.
Hav. Lalak driven back many aggressive ventures by the enemy and imposed colossal losses on them. On July 7, Hav. Lalak sustained serious injuries as enemies pounded the area with heavy mortar shelling.
But despite being injured, he retained his position and frustrated the Indian assault. He, however, succumbed to his injuries at the same post he was defending. Hav.
Lalak was awarded with the Nishan-i-Haider for his dauntless courage and devotion.
After a short period of independence, Pakistan decided in 1951 that it needed a national flag carrier airline; the government of the country accordingly established Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) in this role, and on 25 May ordered three examples of the Lockheed L-1049C Super Constellation four-engined airliner as the new operator’s initial equipment. PIA flew its first service with the Super Constellation on 07 June 1954 on the route linking Karachi and Dacca (now Dhaka), which were the main cities of the country’s western and eastern halves, of which the later is now Bangladesh. On 1 February 1955 the airline flew its first international service, between Karachi and London via Cairo.
Lockheed L-1049C Super Constellation
AP-AFQ in 1950s livery
On 11 March 1955 PIA formally took over the assets and routes of another Pakistani operator, Orient Airways, which had in effect been part of PIA since October 1953. The consolidation of the two airlines meant that PIA could enlarge its domestic network with 11 Douglas DC-3 and two Convair CV-240 aircraft, which left the Super Constellation machines wholly free for international services.
Douglas DC-3 Dakota
AP-AAH in 1960s livery
Modernization of the fleet used for domestic and regional operations was now a matter of high priority, and in May 1956 the airline placed an order for three examples of the Vickers Viscount 815 four-turboprop airliner, the first of which was accepted in the UK on 2 January 1959 for a debut in revenue earning service on the service linking Karachi and Delhi on 31 January 1959. Further enhancement came in 1961 with debut of the Fokker F-27 Friendship twin-turboprop type, of which the first was received on 3 January 1961. The availability of the F-27 for operation on the routes linking the major Pakistani cities freed the DC-3 fleet for use on new services to the remoter parts of East Pakistan.
Vickers Viscount 815
AP-AJG in 1960s livery (Abbas Ali Collection)
PIA was the first Asian airline with pure-jet aircraft, in the form of a Boeing 707-321 machine leased from Pan American World Airways for use from 7 March 1960 on the London service that was extended to New York on 17 June 1961. On 21 December 1961 PIA began to receive its own jet aircraft when it took delivery of the first of three Boeing 720-040B aircraft, whose availability permitted the operator to enlarge its international route network.
AP-AMG in 1970s livery
In 1963 PIA called off its New York service, but on 29 April 1964 became the first non-communist airline to operate a service to the Chinese city of Shanghai. A notable feature of PIA’s domestic routes in East Pakistan for some time was the helicopter services operated with Sikorsky S-61N‘s. PIA ordered four examples of the Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident 1E to replace Vickers Viscount 815s. First of these four Trident aircraft was accepted on 1 March 1966. The Trident aircraft were later sold to the Civil Aviation Administration of China in 1970. In 1971 East Pakistan secured its independence as Bangladesh, and PIA ceased operations to that country. The airline’s fleet and network were both reduced, but the service to New York was resumed in 1972.
Hawker Siddeley HS.121 Trident 1E
AP-AUG in 1960s livery
The first wide-body airliner used by PIA was the McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 three-turbofan type, which the airline first received on 1 March 1974. A pair of Boeing 747-282B four-turbofan aircraft (initially leased from TAP Air Portugal) followed in April 1976, and on 3 March 1980 the airline accepted its first Airbus A300B4-203 two-turbofan type. In 1985 PIA became the first Asian operator of Boeing 737-300 aircraft, a total of six Boeing 737-300s were ordered to replace ageing Boeing 720B aircraft. PIA received first of its six Airbus A310-308 aircraft on 25 June 1991 from Airbus Industrie.
AP-AYW in 1980s livery
In the first half of the year 1999, PIA acquired five Boeing 747-367 aircraft (initially leased from Cathay Pacific) for its European and North American destinations. In 2002 PIA signed an agreement with Boeing Company for the biggest aircraft deal in the history of PIA. After a dry spell of 10 years, PIA ordered new aircraft – 8 wide-body aircraft from the Boeing 777 family for its long-haul flights. The airline accepted delivery of its first Boeing 777-240ER aircraft at Boeing Field in Seattle, USA, on 29 January, 2004. On 2 November, 2005, PIA signed an agreement with Avions de Transport Regional (ATR) of France to purchase seven brand new ATR 42-500 turbo prop aircraft. These new 48-seater ATRs will replace PIA’s ageing fleet of Fokker F-27s on airline’s domestic and regional route network. On May 31, 2006, PIA received its first ATR 42-500 in Toulouse, France. The remaining six ATR 42-500s were delivered to the airline between 2006 and 2007.
AP-BGK in new livery
The Airbus A310, Boeing 747 and Boeing 777 are currently the mainstays of PIA’s medium- and long-haul operations, with feeder, local and regional services provided by the Boeing 737-300 and ATR 42-500.
Life has never been easy for PIA, as the flag carrier of a young and developing nation which has had an eventful history to date, but it is a worthy ambassador for Pakistan and its people. Its services and personnel have helped to make the country more widely known and her people better understood in a large part of the world.
The Birth of Pakistan, 1947
British parliament on July 18, 1947 passed the Indian Independence Act. The Act created two dominions: Indian Union and Pakistan. It also provided for the complete end of British control over Indian affairs from August 15, 1947. Learn More…
The Constitution of 1973
Bhutto government turned towards the arduous task of framing a new constitution for Pakistan. After nearly two years of debate in the Assembly, the new constitution was passed. It was proclaimed on August 14, 1973. Learn More…
Pakistan: A Nuclear Power [May 28, 1998]
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The Kargil Operation, 1999
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Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Pakistan, one of the biggest Muslim states, is a living monument of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He, with his untiring efforts, indomitable will and dauntless courage united the Indian Muslims under the Muslim League banner and carved out a homeland for them despite stiff opposition from the Hindu Congress and the British government. Learn More…
Allama Iqbal, a great poet-philosopher and an active political leader was born in 1873, in Sialkot in the Punjab. He descended from a family of Kashmiri Brahmins, who had embraced Islam about three hundred years earlier. Learn More…
Fatima Jinnah [1893-1967]
Miss Fatima Jinnah, younger sister of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was born in 1893. Of his seven brothers and sisters, she was the closest to the Quaid. Jinnah became her guardian upon the death of their father in 1901. Learn More…
Muhammad Ayub Khan
General Ayub Khan was born on May 14, 1907 in the village of Rehana in Hazara division in NWFP. After his early education in a local school, he completed matriculation in 1922. Learn More…
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq [1924-88]
General Zia-ul-Haq was born in Jalundhar on August 12, 1924. He was commissioned in the British Army in 1945, serving in Burma, Malaya and Indonesia during the Second World War. Learn More…
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born on January 5, 1928. He was the only son of Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto. He completed his early education from Bombay Cathedral High School. Learn More…
Benazir Bhutto [Born 1953-2007]
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Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
Muhammad Nawaz Sharif was born in Lahore, on December 25, 1949. He is the eldest son of Muhammad Sharif, a joint owner of Ittefaq Group of Industries. Learn More…
General Pervez Musharraf
General Pervez Musharraf, the second of three brothers was born in Dehli on August 11,1943. He spent his early childhood in Turkey (1949-1956) owing to his fatherâ€™s deputation in Ankara. Learn More…
Abdul Qadeer Khan[note 1] (Urdu: ڈاکٹر عبد القدیر خان ; born: 1 April 1936), D.Eng, Sc.D, HI, NI (twice), FPAS; more widely known as Dr. A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani nuclear scientist and a metallurgical engineer who served as the Director-General of the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) from 1976 till 2001. Abdul Qadeer Khan is widely regarded as the founder of HEU based Gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment programme for Pakistan’s nuclear deterrence development.
Abdul Qadeer Khan was one of Pakistan’s top scientists, and was involved in the country’s various scientific programmes until his debriefing. On January 2004, Khan was officially summoned for a debriefing on his suspicious activities in other countries after the United States provided evidences to the Pakistan Government, and confessed it a month later. After years of debriefing, the Islamabad High Court (IHC) on 6 February 2009 declared Abdul Qadeer Khan to be a free citizen of Pakistan, allowing him free movement inside the country. The verdict was rendered by Chief Justice Sardar Muhammad Aslam. In September 2009, expressing concerns over the Lahore High Court’s decision to end all security restrictions on Khan, the United States warned that Khan still remains a “serious proliferation risk”.
Khan was born in 1936 to a Pashtun family in Bhopal State of India (then part of the British Indian Empire). His father Dr. Abdul Ghafoor Khan was an academic who served in the Education Ministry of the British Indian Government and after retirement in 1935, he settled permanently in Bhopal State. In 1947, after the partition, the family migrated from India to Pakistan, and settled in West-Pakistan. Khan studied in Saint Anthony’s High School of Lahore, and then enrolled at the D.J. Science College of Karachi. There, he took B.Sc. in Physics and B.A. in Mathematics under the supervision of Suparco physicist Dr. Bashir Syed. In 1956, he attended Karachi University and obtained a B.S. degree in Metallurgy in 1960. To support the fees of his education, Khan was employed at Siemens Engineering where he worked as a practical trainee (junior engineer).
After graduation, he was employed by the Karachi City Government and worked as an Inspector of weight and measures in Karachi, Pakistan. In 1961, he went to West Germany to study Metallurgical engineering at the Technical University of Berlin. In 1967, Khan obtained an engineer’s degree (in Technology), an equivalent of Master of Science, from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, and the Doctor of Engineering degree in Metallurgical engineering under the supervision of Martin Brabers from the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, in 1972. Khan’s doctoral dissertations were written in fluent German. His doctoral thesis dealt and contained the fundamental work in Martensite, and its extended industrial applications to the field of Morphology, a field that studies the shape, size, texture and phase distribution of physical objects
Research in Europe
In 1972, the year he received his doctorate, Khan through a former university classmate, Friedrich Tinner, and a recommendation from his old professor and mentor, Martin J. Brabers, joined the senior staff of the Physics Dynamics Research Laboratory (FDO) in Amsterdam. At first, he was responsible for evaluating High-strength metals to be used for centrifuge components. The FDO was a subcontractor for URENCO Group, the uranium enrichment research facility at Almelo, Netherlands, which had been established in 1970 by the United Kingdom, West Germany, and the Netherlands to assure a supply of enriched uranium for European nuclear reactors. According to Khan’s deputy, Dr. Ghulam Dastigar Alam, Khan was very fluent in German, French and English languages, and the FDO administration gave him a drawing of a centrifuge machine for translation. However, Khan later joined the URENCO Group after Urenco offered him a prestigious job. Khan was made responsible for performing experiments on Uranium metallurgy and was tasked to produce commercial-grade uranium usable for light water reactors. In the meantime, the URENCO Group gave drawings of centrifuges for the solution of engineering problems that Urenco’s engineers were facing. The Urenco facility used Zippe-type centrifuge technology to separate the fissile isotopes 235U from non-fissile 238U by spinning 6UF gas at up to 100,000Rpm. Abdul Qadeer Khan’s academic and leading-edge research in metallurgy brought great laurels to Urenco Group. In a short span of time, Khan earned a great reputation there, and enjoyed a distinguished career at Urenco. One of his greatest achievements was to enhance and improve the efficiency of the gas-centrifuges, which he did all alone. URENCO enjoyed a great academic relationship with Dr. Khan, and Urenco had Khan as one of the most senior scientists at the research facility where he worked and researched. URENCO granted Khan a great privileged to have access to the most restricted areas of Urenco facility as well as permitting him to have access to the most restricted and highly classified documentation on the gas centrifuge technology. During this time, Urenco had granted this privilege to few of the senior academic scientists who were working in the highly secretive and classified research projects.
Uranium enrichment is an extremely difficult process, as 235U exists in natural uranium at a concentration of only 0.7%; for the purposes of most power-generation reactors the concentration of that isotope has to be increased about fivefold, to at least 3%. The trick is to isolate and shed a similar isotope known as 238U which is barely 1% heavier. By spinning at very high speeds—electrically driven to 100,000 Rpm, in perfect balance, on superb bearings, in a vacuum, linked by pipes to thousands of other units doing the same—this is what the centrifuge achieves. Much of the technical details of these centrifuge systems are regulated as secret information and subject to export controls because they could be used for the purposes of proliferation, and useful to make weapon-grade fuel for weapon making purposes. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was responsible for improving the efficiency of the centrifuges used by Urenco, and greatly contributed to the technological advancement of the Zippe technology, a technology that was developed by Gernot Zippe, a mechanical engineer, in the Soviet Union during the 1940s.
Uranium Enrichment Programme
Pakistan’s atomic weapons research program started on January 20, 1972, when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the then Chief Martial Law Administrator, chaired a secret meeting of academic scientists at Multan. Known as the Multan meeting. The formal research was launched under the administrative control of Bhutto, and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (or PAEC) under its Chairman, Munir Ahmad Khan, was exploring the Plutonium route, at first, to developing an atomic device. In 1974, Indian Premier Indira Gandhi gave verbal authorization to the scientists at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) to conduct a test of a device that they had built, and the preparation was completed under extreme secrecy. On May 18, 1974, India conducted a surprise nuclear test, codenamed Operation Smiling Buddha, near the Pakistan’s eastern border. The test was conducted at the long-constructed Indian Army base, known as Pokhran Test Range (PTR). It was only three years since Pakistan’s humiliating defeat in the 1971 Indo-Pak Winter war and the Winter war had put Pakistan’s mortal existence in great danger. This nuclear test, Operation Smiling Buddha, greatly alarmed the Government of Pakistan. In Pakistan, this test was greatly sensed and saw as last anticipation of Pakistan’s death. Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto quickly scrambled to establish a sustainable nuclear weapons capability in the shortest time possible. Sensing the importance of this test, Munir Ahmad Khan secretly launched the Project-706, a secret uranium enrichment programme, under its first technical director Sültan Bashiruddin Mahmood.
During this time, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was working in a weapon-grade centrifuge production facility in the Netherlands as senior scientist. As he learned the news, dr. Abdül Qadeer Khan went to the Pakistan Embassy in Amsterdam and approached Pakistan government officials where he offered to help with Pakistan’s nuclear deterrence programme. At first, he approached a pair of Pakistan military scientists who were in the Netherlands on business. At the Pakistan Embassy, the military scientists discouraged him by saying: “As a metallurgical engineer, it would be a hard job for him to find a job in PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission)”.
Undaunted, Abdul Qadeer Khan wrote to Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, saying, “he [Abdul Qadeer Khan] sets out his experience and encourages Prime Minister Bhutto to make an atomic bomb using uranium, rather than plutonium, the method Pakistan is currently trying to adopt under the leadership of Munir Ahmad Khan“. As letter was received by Prime minister Secretariat, because Khan, at that time was unknown to the Government, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto asked the ISI to run a complete background check on Khan and prepare an assessment report on Khan. The ISI submitted its report and recommending Khan as an incompetent scientist in the field of nuclear technology based on his academic discipline. However, Bhutto was unsatisfied with ISI’s report and was eager to known more about Khan, therefore Bhutto asked Munir Ahmad Khan to dispatch a team of PAEC’s scientists to meet Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Munir Ahmad Khan chose Sültan Bashiruddin Mahmood as head of the team and the team met with Dr. Khan at night and the discussion was held until the next day. After the meeting, the team returned to Pakistan and Bhutto decided to meet Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan immediately. A letter was directed, and Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan took a leave from Urenco Group.
Joining the Project-706
In December 1974, Abdul Qadeer Khan traveled to Pakistan and immediately went to Prime minister Secretariat without even stopping at the local hotel. The meeting was held at midnight and remained under extreme secrecy with only few knowing about it. There, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan met with Zulfikar Bhutto, Munir Ahmad Khan, and dr. Mübascher Hassan, Bhutto’s Science Adviser. During the meeting, dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan enlightened the importance to Uranium-based device, but was unable to convince Bhutto to adopt uranium as the best approach rather than plutonium to make an atomic device. As Munir Ahmad Khan was a plutonium technologist and an expert in nuclear fuel cycle, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto did not agree to halt the plutonium efforts but moved to begin a parallel uranium program. After dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan took off from the Prime minister Secretariat, Zulfikar Bhutto quietly told with his close friends Munir Ahmad Khan and Mübascher Hassan that, “He [Abdul Qadeer Khan] seems to make sense.” Next day early morning, another meeting was held where dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan persuaded again to Bhutto and tried to convince him to halt the plutonium pursuit. In a meeting with Bhutto, Munir Ahmad Khan and senior academic scientists and engineers at PAEC believed that they could run the reactor without Canadian assistance, and they insisted that with the French extraction plant in the offing, Pakistan should stick with its original plan. Bhutto did not disagree, but saw the advantage of mounting a parallel effort toward enriched uranium.
Before Abdul Qadeer Khan’s joining, the uranium route was considered secondary route, and most efforts were put to develop a device with weapon-grade plutonium. In spring of 1976, Abdul Qadeer Khan joined the programme, and worked initially under Sultan Mahmood. However, after Mahmood briefed Khan on the project, the pair disagreed, and Abdul Qadeer Khan became highly unsatisfied with the work led by Mahmood. He wrote a letter to Munir Ahmad Khan, later directed to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, where he expressed his discontent with Mahmood and saying that he wanted to work independently.
Bhutto sensed a great danger as the scientists were split between uranium and plutonium routes. Therefore, Bhutto called Abdul Qadeer Khan for a meeting which was held at the Prime minister Secretariat. With backing of Bhutto, Khan took over the enrichment programme and re-named the project to Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL). Abdul Qadeer Khan disliked the idea of PAEC getting involved in his work; instead he advocated for Corps of Engineers to lead the construction of the suitable operational enrichment plant. The E-in-C chose Brigadier Zahid Ali Akbar, a system engineer notable for leading the construction of GHQ, Pakistan Army’s Combatant Headquarter. Brigadier Zahid Ali Akbar chose the city of Kahuta near Rawalpindi, Punjab Province, for the operational enrichment facility. Kahuta, at that time, was a remote and dangerous area with mountains covered the entire region. And, because the experiments were too dangerous to perform in public area, Brigadier Zahid chose Kahuta as best place to perform the dangerous experiments where public life was no where to be found. With promotion awarded by Bhutto, Zahid Ali Akbar was made Major-General, and served as the first Director of the Project-706. Major-General Akbar designed the entire city of Kahuta and as well the enrichment plant, facility and the research institute near by. During 1970s, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan worked at Engineering Research Laboratories as senior scientist and was responsible for established the laboratories and the enrichment chambers there. Major-General Akbar’s office was shifted at the General’s Headquarter (GHQ) and in his capacity, dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan served as intern director of the Engineering Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL). In 1980, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was officially made Director-General of the ERL, and he would later on served his role as more businessman than the scientist. In 1983, Pakistan’s Chief Martial Law Administrator and Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq subsequently renamed it from Engineering Research Laboratories to Khan Research Laboratories (KRL). At first the facility suffered many sat back, but after PAEC sent its scientists to ERL for a time being, the enrichment programme became fully functioned by the early 1981.
The Scope of Research
In spite of Khan’s initiation and leading the uranium program, the PAEC led by Munir Ahmad Khan remained in charge of all the other critical steps of the nuclear fuel cycle, starting from uranium exploration, processing, conversion, fuel fabrication and reprocessing- both in the pre and post enrichment phases as well as the plutonium, nuclear weapons and civil and military reactors programs. From the beginning, Abdul Qadeer Khan was not involved in the designing of the nuclear weapons and including its calculations and such details were never provided to him by the government. Unlike other scientists who were generally allowed to visit country’s most classified research institute, Khan was not allowed to visit many of secret and classified sites, such as The New Laboratories where the weapon-grade plutonium and weapon designing took place. As oppose to others, Khan needed government clarifications and special permissions were required by Khan in order to visit such sites where he never visited alone and at least senior active duty officers would accompanied him.
Hence, Khan was kept in dark and was not informed by his colleagues or the government officials if cold tests were taking place in under extreme secrecy. Khan was also not invited, nor any one provided him the details, to the secret cold-test of a nuclear device, codename Kirana-I that was conducted in March 1983 by the PAEC under Munir Ahmad Khan. In 1984, Abdul Qadeer Khan’s KRL claimed to carry out its own nuclear cold test of a weapon. However, this seemed unsuccessful as PAEC had already carried out the test in 1983, and would carry out 24 more cold tests of different nuclear weapon designs. In 1984, KRL had produces the first and fresh batch of weapon-grade uranium loosely based on the Zippe Type technology.
Abdul Qadeer Khan’s Kahuta Research laboratories (KRL) was initially singly focused on enrichment of natural uranium into weapon-grade uranium. Despite of international media’s reporting, neither the KRL nor Abdul Qadeer Khan, was mandated to participate or/ involved with other phases of the nuclear weapon research development, including the actual weapon designing, development and testing of weapons, which remained under PAEC. Nor was it involved in upstream activities such as uranium exploration, mining, refining and the production of Urania as well as the conversion of yellow cake into 6UF, the gaseous feedstock for the enrichment. Nor was it responsible for contributing in nuclear energy programme or the reprocessing programme, which also remained under PAEC.
Competition with PAEC
From the start, the KRL and PAEC were fierce rivals and competitors. From the beginning of the project, Abdul Qadeer Khan disliked the idea of PAEC involvement in KRL’s enrichment projects. That was the reason that Army Engineering Core had led the construction of the KRL facility under Brigadier Zahid Ali Akbar. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was a staunch critic of Munir Ahmad Khan’s work. Abdul Qadeer Khan, on many different occasions, unsuccessfully tried to remove Munir Ahmad Khan’s role in the nuclear weapons research programme. In spite of that, Munir Ahmad Khan and the PAEC provided its full support to Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan’s work. The Atlantic Monthly described the two as mortal enemies.
In the early 1980s, KRL also sought to develop nuclear weapons and claimed to have carried out at least one cold test in 1983. This appears to have been unsuccessful. PAEC had carried out the first cold test on 11 March 1983, and in the following years conducted 24 cold tests of different weapons designs. Khan used his influenced in the government to took over the projects from PAEC and one of the notable case was in 1980, when Khan took over the Laser range-finder project which was awarded to fellow scientist dr. Shaukat Hameed Khan from PAEC. In the meantime, the KRL launched other competing weapons development projects, such as the nuclear-capable and liquid-fueled Ghauri-I programme. In early 1995, the PAEC developed the solid fueled Shaheen-I Systems. According to its scientists, the PAEC’s Shaheen missile programme was highly ambitious and ingenious. Dr. Samar Mubarakmand was the lead designer of the Shaheen missile programme.
In 1980s, KRL produced both weapons and reactor grade uranium to level the competition with PAEC. However, while PAEC developed its the programme indigenously under Munir Ahmad Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad and Samar Mubarakmand, Abdul Qadeer Khan’s team anticipated and richly contributed to the country’s first Battlefield Range Ballistic Missile (BRBM), the Hatf missile system, collaborating with the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO).
1998 Atomic Testings
As the competition between KRL and PAEC was already intense, the competition became highly intensified when neighboring India conduct a series of tests of its nuclear bombs, codename Pokhran-II, in 1998 in long-constructed Indian Army Pokhran Test Range. These nuclear tests conducted by India caused great alarm and internal tension in Pakistan. Näväz Scharief, Prime minister at that time, came under intense media and public pressure to conduct its own nuclear tests. After the Indian nuclear weapons tests, Abdul Qadeer Khan repeatedly met with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, trying for permission to test Pakistan’s nuclear weapons in Chagai. He proposed the idea that the tests could by carried out in the underground tunnels in Kahuta. But it was denied by the government as well as the Pakistan Defence Forces as too aggressive towards India and raging a war against India. Despite his efforts, Sharif instead chose PAEC, under Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad, due to their experience of ingeniously carrying out the tests in the past.
When the news reached to the him that PAEC has been tasked with the testings, furious Khan was badly upset and frustrated with the Prime minister. Without wasting a minute, Khan reached to Pakistan Army’s Combatant General’s Headquarter (GHQ) where he met with General Jehängeer Cäramatt, Chief of Army Staff, where he lodged a strong protest and grievousness to the Chief of Army Staff. General Cäramatt then called the Prime minister Secretariat, and Prime minister decided that KRL scientists, including Dr. A.Q. Khan, would also be involved in the nuclear test preparations and present at the time of testing alongside those of the PAEC. In meantime, Scharief sought to mitigate the intense rivalry between PAEC and KRL by asking Khan to provide its enriched uranium to PAEC. Prime minister Scharief also urged both KRL and PAEC to work together in the nation’s best interest. It was the KRL’s HEU that ultimately led to the successful detonation of Pakistan’s first nuclear devices on 28 May 1998, under codename Chagai-I. Two days later, on 30 May, a small team of scientists belonging to PAEC, under the leadership of Dr. Samar Mubarakmand, a plutonium nuclear device, codename Chagai-II. According to Pakistan defense analyst and retired engineer officer Lieutenant-General Talat Masood, the weapon-grade device was much more powerful than the uranium device. The yield of the device was reported to 12-20 Kt. However, in an interview with Dr. Shahid Masood of ARY Television Network, Abdul Qadeer Khan said that the even the second nuclear test was also based on Uranium-fissile fuel, though he did not provide any evidence to his claim despite the anchor urged to provide the claims.
In an interview and the thesis written in his book, Khan maintained that eye-witnessing the nuclear tests, and becoming of Pakistan as nuclear power, was his most happiest, finest, and glorified days of his life.
Proliferation of URENCO technology
Abdul Qadeer Khan then established an administrative proliferation network through Dubai to smuggle URENCO nuclear technology to Khan Research Laboratories. Abdul Qadeer Khan, partnered with Friedrich Tinner and Peter Finke, established a company to transfer Urenco technology to Pakistan, Libya, and Iran. However, the cover was blown by British MI-6, and Finke, along with unnamed ISI officer, defected to Pakistan while Tinner escaped to Libya.
On an interview given by Dr. G.D. Alam — a theoretical physicist who headed the enrichment programme, alongside with Abdul Qadeer Khan — made a confession acknowledging A.Q. Khan’s nuclear proliferation work. According to Dr. Ghulam Dastigar Alam, the URENCO Group had given Abdul Qadeer Khan the drawings of centrifuges for translation, and to find out the errors in the centrifuges designs that URENCO engineers were facing. Abdul Qadeer Khan brought those drawings (blue prints) to Pakistan without notifying the URENCO Group and the Dutch government. Abdul Qadeer Khan’s stolen drawings of centrifuge machine were incomplete and incorrect. Academic scientists, such as Dr. Tasnim Shah, Dr. G.D. Alam, Dr. Qadir Hussain, Dr. Anwar Ali, had developed new and powerful version of the centrifugal machine, and Abdul Qadeer Khan had nothing to do with it. Even though it was Abdul Qadeer Khan’s tasked to figure out the problems as URENCO Group had trusted him for the solution of the problems. As the problems were fixed, Abdul Qadeer Khan began the enrichment operations in KRL and a milestone was reached in 1978 with enrichment project. In 1981, Dr. G.D. Alam and other academic scientists were transferred back to PAEC as they had developed serious disagreement with Abdul Qadeer Khan over his nuclear proliferation activities.
In 1980, a foreign government from an unknown Arab country contacted Dr. A.Q. Khan. Khan began his nuclear proliferation network and tried to include other scientists in his scheme, including Alam. The scientists had declined to cooperate with Khan. Abdul Qadeer Khan then decided to begin his independent operations in other countries. Ghulam Dastigar Alam disclosed his statement, as he said: Even until today, Dr. A.Q. Khan apart from the basics knows nothing about nuclear science and even today, he is not able to talk on technical issues.
In 2004, Samar Mubarakmand — a nuclear physicist who supervised the Chagai tests — provided further details about A.Q. Khan’s proliferation network in an interview with Hamid Mir‘s Capital Talk. Mubarakmand acknowledged that the PAEC in IAEA first became aware of A.Q. Khan’s network in 1980s, as PAEC was also a part of Libya and Iraq weapon’s inspections. When Government confronted Abdul Qadeer Khan, he simply denied the acquisitions. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan first visited Chagai on May 28. He arrived 15 minutes prior to the tests, Mubarakmand concluded. He ended his interview by saying: It was PAEC, especially the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG), that designed and developed the weapons as well as the programme. Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan was only tasked with the enrichment project that he had took over in 1976. If he knew how to build the designs of weapons, Iraq, Libya and Iran would have developed the weapons by now, Mubarakmand concluded.
Suspicions of outside involvement
The success development of uranium enrichment programme attracted the outside world rapidly that observers suspected outside assistance. The western intelligence agencies reported that senior Chinese technicians, from their own nuclear weapons program, had been at the facility in the early 1980s. But, due to lack of evidence, it report did not received any attention, but suspicions soon fell on Khan’s suspicious activities at Urenco Group. In 1983, Khan was sentenced in absentia to four years in prison by an Amsterdam court for attempted espionage. When the news reached to Pakistan, Barrister S.M. Zafar, at his own expense, immediately traveled to Amsterdam to fight the case of Khan and filed a petition in an Amsterdam court. Zafar, teamed with Khan’s old mentor professor Martin Brabers and his universities administration, where Zafar prepared for the case. At the trial, Zafar and Martin argued that the technical informations stole by Khan are commonly found and taught in graduate and doctoral courses at the university, therefore the evidences are not strong enough to jailed Khan. After series of hearing, the sentence was later overturned on appeal on a legal technicality by Amsterdam Court. Khan, with Barrister Zafar, returned to Pakistan and explicitly gave interviews to Pakistan’s mass media.
Khan rejected any suggestion that Pakistan had illicitly acquired nuclear expertise: “All the research work [at Kahuta] was the result of our innovation and struggle,” he said in 1990. “We did not receive any technical know-how from abroad, but we cannot reject the use of books, magazines, and research papers in this connection.”
As Pakistan Government continued to secretly developed the programme, A.Q. Khan, on other side, continued to publicized the programme by giving and issuing statements. In 1987, in an interview to British newspaper, Khan allegedly confirmed Pakistan’s acquisition of a nuclear weapons development capability, saying that a U.S. intelligence report “about our possessing the bomb (nuclear weapon) is correct and so is speculation of some foreign newspapers”. The senior officials of Pakistan Government denied the statement and disavowed the Khan’s alleged statement. The Government took the matter to General Zia-ul-Haq where General Zia-ul-Haq strongly urged Khan to stop issuing the statements or ready to face the consequences. The next day, Khan immediately wrote to British newspaper and denied giving the statement. In October 1991, the Pakistani newspaper Dawn reported that Khan had repeated his claim at a dinner meeting of businessmen and industrialists in Karachi, which “sent a wave of jubilation” through the audience.
In October 1990, KRL’s activities led the U.S. to terminate economic and military aid to Pakistan, which led to a freeze in Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development program. But in July 1996 Khan said, “at no stage was the program of producing nuclear weapons-grade enriched uranium ever stopped”.
Expansion of network
In the 1980s, the international media reported that People’s Republic of China negotiated with Pakistan for the sale of HEU fuel. During this time, General Zia-ul-Haq contracted with the Chinese regime to sell HEU fuel in exchange for (UF6). Dr. A.Q. Khan, along with the Pakistan Navy‘s Vice-Admiral, visited China to provide technical support to the Chinese nuclear weapons program. The KRL also aided China in building the centrifuge facility in Hanzhong province, roughly built in the same style as the original design of KRL. When it was reported, Chinese regime offered back the HEU fuel, but Pakistan refused, calling it a gift of gesture to China. However, after Khan was convicted in Amsterdam and later returned to country in 1986, he stopped his activities as General Zia-ul-Haq had formed a military unit to monitor Khan. Khan restarted his activities after the assassination of General Zia-ul-Haq in an aircraft crash.
The Pakistan cricket team is the national cricket team of Pakistan. It is administrated by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB). Pakistan is a full member of the International Cricket Council, and thus participates in Test, ODI and Twenty20 International cricket matches.
Pakistan have played 358 Test matches, with winning 108, losing 100 and drawing 150. The team has the 3rd-best win/loss ratio in Test cricket of 1.08, and the 4th-best overall win percentage of 30.16%. Pakistan was given Test status on 28 July 1952, following a recommendation by India, and made its Test debut against India at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi, in October 1952, with India winning by an innings and 70 runs. Previously, Pakistani cricketers had competed as a part of the Indian national team before the partition of India.
Pakistan have played 749 ODIs, winning 401, losing 326, tying 6 and with 16 ending in no-result. Pakistan were the 1992 World Cup champions, and also came runners-up in the 1999 tournament. Pakistan, in conjunction with other countries on the Subcontinent, have hosted the 1987 & 1996, with the 1996 final being hosted at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. The team has also played 46 Twenty20 Internationals, the most of any team, winning 27, losing 18 and tying 1. Pakistan won the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and came runners-up in the inaugural tournament in 2007.
Following the Partition of India in 1947 and the establishment of the separate province of Pakistan, cricket in the country developed steadily and Pakistan was given Test match status at a meeting of the Imperial Cricket Conference at Lord’s Cricket Ground in England on 28 July 1952 following recommendation by India, which, being the successor state of the British Raj, did not have to go through such a process. The first captain of the Pakistan national cricket team was Abdul Kardar.
Pakistan’s first Test match was played in Delhi in October 1952 as part of a five Test series which India won 2–1. Pakistan made their first tour of England in 1954 and drew the series 1–1 after a memorable victory at The Oval in which fast bowler Fazal Mahmood took 12 wickets. Pakistan’s first home Test match was in Dacca in January 1955 against India, after which four more Test matches were played in Bahawalpur, Lahore, Peshawar and Karachi (all five matches in the series were drawn, the first such occurrence in test history).
The team is considered a strong but unpredictable team. Traditionally Pakistani cricket has been filled with players of great talent but limited discipline, making them a team which could play inspirational cricket one day and then perform less than ordinarily another day. Over the years, competitions between India and Pakistan have always been emotionally charged and provide for intriguing contests, as talented teams and players from both sides of the border elevate their game to new levels to produce high-quality cricket. Pakistani contest with India in the Cricket World Cup have seen packed stadiums and elevated atmospheres no matter where the World Cup has been held.
1986 Australasia Cup
The 1986 Australasia Cup, played in Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates, is remembered as a famous last-ball victory for Pakistan against arch-rivals India, with Javed Miandad emerging as a national hero. India batted first and set a target of 245 runs, leaving Pakistan with a required run rate of 4.92 runs per over. Javed Miandad came in to bat at number 3 and Pakistan lost wickets at regular intervals. Later recalling the match, Miandad stated that his main focus was to lose with dignity. With 31 runs needed in the last three overs, Miandad hit a string of boundaries while batting with his team’s lower order, until four runs were required from the last delivery of the match. Miandad received a leg side full toss from Chetan Sharma, which he hit for six over the midwicket boundary.
1992 Cricket World Cup
At the 1992 World Cup Semi Final, having won the toss, New Zealand chose to bat first and ended with a total of 262 runs. Pakistan batted conservatively yet lost wickets at regular intervals. With the departure of Imran Khan and Saleem Malik shortly thereafter, Pakistan still required 115 runs at a rate of 7.67 runs per over with veteran Javed Miandad being the only known batsman remaining at the crease. A young Inzamam-ul-Haq, who had just turned 22 and was not a well-known player at the time, burst onto the international stage with a match-winning 60 off 37 balls. Once Inzamam got out, Pakistan required 36 runs from 30 balls, which wicketkeeper Moin Khan ended with a towering six over long off, followed by the winning boundary to midwicket. The match is seen as the emergence of Inzamam onto the international stage.
The 1992 Cricket World Cup in Australia and New Zealand marked Pakistan’s first World Cup victory. It is remembered for the comeback Pakistan made after losing key players such as Waqar Younis and Saeed Anwar and being led by an injured captain in Imran Khan. Pakistan lost 4 of their first 5 matches and were nearly eliminated in the first round of the tournament after being bowled out for 74 runs against England, until the match was declared as a “no result” due to rain. Imran Khan famously told the team to play as “cornered tigers”, after which Pakistan won five successive matches, including, most famously, the semi-final against hosts New Zealand and the final against England.
2007 Cricket World Cup
The 2007 Cricket World Cup was one of the biggest upsets in World Cup history when Pakistan was knocked out of the competition in a shock defeat to Ireland, who were playing in their first competition. Pakistan, needing to win to qualify for the next stage after losing to the West Indies in their opening match, were put into bat by Ireland. They lost wickets regularly and only 4 batsmen scored double figures. In the end they were bowled out by the Irish for 132 runs. The Irish went on to win the match, after Niall O’Brien scored 72 runs. This meant that Pakistan had been knocked out during the first round for the second consecutive World Cup. Tragedy struck the team when coach Bob Woolmer died one day later on 18 March 2007 in a hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Jamaican police spokesman, Karl Angell, reported on 23 March 2007 that, “Mr Woolmer’s death was due to asphyxiation as a result of manual strangulation” and that, “Mr Woolmer’s death is now being treated by the Jamaica police as a case of murder.” Assistant coach Mushtaq Ahmed acted as temporary coach for the team’s final group game of the tournament. Subsequent to his team’s defeat and the death of Woolmer, Inzamam-ul-Haq announced his resignation as captain of the team and his retirement from one-day cricket, stating that he would continue to take part in Test cricket but not as captain. Shoaib Malik was announced as his successor. Following his return to the squad, Salman Butt was appointed as vice-captain until December 2007.
On 23 March 2007, Pakistan players and officials were questioned by Jamaican police and submitted DNA samples along with fingerprints, as part of the routine enquiries in the investigation into Woolmer’s murder. Three days after leaving the West Indies for Pakistan, via London, the Pakistan team were ruled out as suspects. The deputy commissioner of Jamaican police. Mark Shields, the detective in charge of the investigation, announced, “It’s fair to say they are now being treated as witnesses.” “I have got no evidence to suggest it was anybody in the squad.” A memorial service was held in Sacred Heart Church, Lahore, for Bob Woolmer on 1 April 2007. Among the attendees were Pakistan players and dignitaries, including Inzamam-ul-Haq, who was quoted as saying, “After Woolmer’s family, the Pakistan team was the most aggrieved by his death.” After the World Cup ended, serious doubts were raised about the investigation, with increasing speculation that Woolmer died of natural causes. This has now been accepted as fact, and the case has been closed. Pakistan Qualified for Final Of T20 2009 beating SouthAfrica by 7 runs in 1st semifinal.
On 20 April 2007, a PCB official announced that former Test cricketer Talat Ali would act as interim coach, in addition to his role as team manager, until a new coach had been appointed. On 16 July 2007, Geoff Lawson, previously head coach of New South Wales, was appointed coach of the Pakistan for two years, becoming the third foreigner to take on the role. In the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, Pakistan exceeded expectations to reach the final but ended as runners-up, after losing the final to India in a nail-biting finish. On 25 October 2008, Intikhab Alam was named as a national coach of the team by the PCB.
2009 ICC World T20
On 21 June 2009 Pakistan won the 2009 ICC World Twenty20, beating Sri Lanka in the final by eight wickets. Pakistan had begun the tournament slowly losing two of their first three matches but after dismissing New Zealand for 99 runs in the Super 8 stage they had a run of four consecutive wins including beating previously unbeaten South Africa, in the semi-final and Sri Lanka.
2011 Cricket World Cup
Pakistan started well in the ICC Cricket World up, which was held in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, after beating Kenya, Sri Lanka(one of the tournament favourites) and narrowly beating Canada. After a huge loss against New Zealand, Pakistan defeated Zimbabwe by 7 wickets.’. One of the highlights of the tournament for Pakistan was when they beat Australia, who were led by 3 brilliant pace bowlers, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait and Mitchell Johnson. However Pakistan defied the odds and defeated Australia, courtesy of a brilliant bowling display. In the Quarter-Finals they played West Indies. Pakistan were ruthless, as they emphatically beat the West Indies by 10 wickets,due to another brilliant bowling display. In the Semi-Finals on 30 March, Pakistan had a match with its fiercest rival, India. India, due to Tendulkar who was dropped several times, managed 260 after they batted first. Due to a slow chase, Pakistan were 29 runs short as India reached the final(India went on to win the final).
Swat (pronounced [ˈsʋaːt̪], Pashto: سوات, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan located close to the Afghan-Pakistan border. It is the upper valley of the Swat River, which rises in the Hindu Kush range. The capital of Swat is Saidu Sharif, but the main town in the Swat valley is Mingora. It was a princely state (see Swat (princely state)) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa until it was dissolved in 1969. The valley is almost entirely populated by ethnic Pashtuns/Pakhtuns. The language spoken in the valley is Pashto/Pakhto. With high mountains, green meadows, and clear lakes, it is a place of great natural beauty that used to be popular with tourists as “the Switzerland of the region”
Islamabad (help·info) (Urdu: اسلام آباد; Islām ābād, lit. Abode of Islam) is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. The population of the city has increased from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.21 million in 2009. The Rawalpindi/Islamabad Metropolitan Area is the third largest in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants.
Islamabad is located in the Pothohar Plateau in the north of the country, within the Islamabad Capital Territory. The region has historically been a part of the crossroads of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with Margalla pass acting as the gateway between the two regions. The city was built during the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan’s capital.
Islamabad is a well-organized city divided into different sectors and zones. It was ranked as a Gamma world city in 2008. The city is home to Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia and the sixth largest mosque in the world.
Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan and is home to the some of the top ranked universities in Pakistan, including Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences and the National University of Sciences and Technology. Allama Iqbal Open University in Islamabad is one of the world’s largest universities by enrolment.
The Faisalabad Clock Tower is a clock tower in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and is one of the oldest monuments still standing in its original state from the period of the British Raj. It was built by the British, when they ruled much of the South Asia during the nineteenth century.
The majestic Clock Tower of Faisalabad was constructed out of the funds raised by the local Zamindars who collected it at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Municipal Committee which undertook to complete the project.
The locals refer to it as “Ghanta Ghar” in Urdu which translates into Hour House in English. It is located in the older part of the city. The clock is placed at the center of the eight markets that from a bird’s-eye view look like the Union Jack flag of the United Kingdom. This special layout still exists today and can be viewed using the latest software from Google Maps.
During festivals of Eid and Independence Day the mayor (nazim) of Faisalabad delivers a speech at this site and hangs the flag at full mast.